Russian athletes will remain banned from international competitions after the IAAF upheld the country’s suspension into 2019.
Athletics’ governing body banned Russia in November 2015 because of evidence of state-sponsored doping.
The ban will remain in place until samples and data from Moscow’s former anti-doping laboratory are made available.
Russia must also pay all costs incurred by the work of the IAAF’s task force.
It is the ninth time the IAAF has turned down Russia’s appeal for reinstatement.
The decision puts the IAAF at odds with other sporting bodies such as Wada and the International Olympic Committee (IOC), who have revoked their own suspensions of Russia.
The ruling means Russian athletes will not be able to compete under their own flag at the European Indoor Championships in February.
However, athletes who have met the IAAF doping review board’s drug-testing criteria will be allowed to compete under a neutral flag in Glasgow.