Burkina Faso officials say gunmen killed six people including a priest as Mass was being celebrated in a church in Dablo in the northern part of the country.
The attackers, said to number between 20 and 30, then burned down the church.
The town’s mayor, Ousmane Zongo, described panic in the town as other buildings were burnt and a health centre looted.
Jihadist violence has flared in Burkina Faso since 2016, and this is the third attack on a church in five weeks.
Fighters affiliated to al-Qaeda and the Islamic State group as well as the local Ansarul Islam have been active in the region.
Last month, attackers targeted a Protestant church in the town of Silgadji, killing at least six people and earlier in April, four people died when a Catholic church was attacked in a nearby village.